What’s the Difference between Per Stirpes vs. Per Capita in Estate Planning?

When creating an estate plan, one of the basic documents you need is a will. In estate planning, it’s important to distinguish between per stirpes and per capita distributions. These are two terms you are likely to come across when creating your estate plan, says Yahoo Finance’s recent article entitled “Per Stirpes vs. Per Capita in Estate Planning.”

Per stirpes is Latin and means “by branch” or “by class.” When this term is used in estate planning, it refers to the equal distribution of assets among the different branches of a family and their surviving descendants. This lets the descendants of a beneficiary keep inherited assets within that branch of their family, even if the original beneficiary passes away. The assets would be equally divided between the survivors. Per stirpes distributions essentially create a “trickle-down” effect: assets can be passed on to future generations if a primary beneficiary passes away.

In contrast, “per capita” is also a Latin term that means “by head.” When you use a per capita distribution method for estate planning, any assets you have would pass equally to the beneficiaries who are still living when you pass. The share portions would adjust accordingly, if one of your children or grandchildren were to die before you.

Whether it makes sense to use a per stirpes or per capita distribution in your estate plan can depend for the most part, the way in which you want your assets to be distributed after you’re gone.

Per stirpes allows you to keep asset distributions within the same branch of the family and eliminates the need to amend or update wills and trusts when a child is born to one of your beneficiaries or a beneficiary passes away. This method can also help to minimize the potential for infighting among beneficiaries, since asset distribution takes a linear approach. However, an unwanted person could take control of your assets.

With per capita, you can state precisely who you want to name as beneficiaries and receive part of your estate. The assets are distributed equally among beneficiaries, based on the value of your estate at the time you pass away.

Per stirpes and per capita distribution rules can help you determine how your assets are distributed after you die.

Talk with an experienced estate planning attorney to fully understand the implications of each one for your beneficiaries, including how they may be affected from a tax perspective.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Jan. 7, 2021) “Per Stirpes vs. Per Capita in Estate Planning”

 

How Do You Plan for the Death of a Spouse?

The COVID pandemic has become a painful lesson in how important it is to having estate plans in order, especially when a spouse becomes sick, incapacitated, or dies unexpectedly. With more than 400,000 Americans dead from the coronavirus, not every one of them had an estate plan and a financial plan in place, leaving loved ones to make sense of their estate while grieving. This recent article from Market Watch titled “How to get your affairs in order if your spouse is dying” offers five things to do before the worst occurs.

Start by gathering information. Make all of your accounts known and put together paperwork about each and every account. Look for documents that will become crucial, including a durable power of attorney, an advanced health care directive and a last will. Gather paperwork for life insurance policies, investment portfolios and retirement accounts. Create a list of contact information for your estate planning attorney, accountant, insurance agent, doctors and financial advisors and share it with the people who will be responsible for managing your life. In addition, call these people, so they have as much information as possible—this could make things easier for a surviving spouse. Consider making introductions, via phone or a video call, especially if you have been the key point person for these matters.

Create a hard copy binder for all of this information or a file, so your loved ones do not have to conduct a scavenger hunt.

If there is an estate plan in place, discuss it with your spouse and family members so everyone is clear about what is going to happen. If your estate plan has not been updated in several years, that needs to be done. There have been many big changes to tax law, and you may be missing important opportunities that will benefit those left behind.

If there is no estate plan, something is better than nothing. A trust can be done to transfer assets, as long as the trust is funded properly and promptly.

Confirm beneficiary designations. Check everything for accuracy. If ex-spouses, girlfriends, or boyfriends are named on accounts that have not been reviewed for decades, there will be a problem for the family. Problems also arise when no one is listed as a beneficiary. Beneficiary designations are used in many different accounts, including retirement accounts, life insurance policies, annuities, stock options, restricted stock and deferred compensation plans.

Many Americans die without a will, known as “intestate.” With no will, the court must rely on the state’s estate laws, which does not always result in the people you wanted receiving your property. Any immediate family or next of kin may become heirs, even if they were people you with whom you were not close or from whom you may even have been estranged. Having no will can lead to estate battles or having strangers claim part of your estate.

If there are minor children and no will to declare who their guardian should be, the court will decide that also. If you have minor children, you must have a will to protect them and a plan for their financial support.

Create a master list of digital assets. These assets range from photographs to financial accounts, utility bills and phone bills to URLs for websites. What would happen to your social media accounts, if you died and no one could access them? Some platforms provide for a legacy contact, but many do not. Prepare what information you can to avoid the loss of digital assets that have financial and sentimental value.

Gathering these materials and having these conversations is difficult, but they are a necessity if a family member receives a serious diagnosis. If there is no estate plan in place, have a conversation with an estate planning attorney who can advise what can be done, even in a limited amount of time.

Reference: Market Watch (Jan. 22, 2021) “How to get your affairs in order if your spouse is dying”

 

Every Adults Needs a Will and a Health Care Power of Attorney

A serious illness can happen at any age, but just 18% of those 55 and older have a living will, power of attorney for health care and a last will and testament, according to a 2019 study by Merrill Lynch Wealth Management.

AZ Central’s recent article entitled “What to know about wills and health care power of attorney in Arizona” says that every adult should have these documents, including young professionals, single people and those without children.

These documents make it easier for an individual and their family during a stressful time. They make your wishes clear.  They also help give directions to family members and allow you to name a person you believe is the most responsible and able to fulfill your wishes.

Note that a power of attorney, living will and last will each has its own purpose.  A power of attorney for health care lets your named agent make medical decisions on your behalf if you are incapacitated, while you are still alive. Without a health care power of attorney or living will, it can complicate and delay matters.

A living will or “advance directive” is used when a person needs end-of-life care. This document can provide instructions on how the person wants to be treated, like not wanting a feeding tube or wanting as much medical help as possible.

In contrast, a last will and testament states what happens to a person’s estate or assets after they pass away. A last will can also designate a guardian for minor children.  A last will can state who will be in charge of the person’s estate, known as an executor or a personal representative.

You should name a primary representative and an alternate to serve and provide copies of the documents to the people chosen for these roles.

Contact an experienced estate planning attorney to assist you.

Reference: AZ Central (Jan. 14, 2021) “What to know about wills and health care power of attorney in Arizona”

 

How do I Settle an Estate if I’m Named Executor?

If you are asked to be an executor, you should learn some of the basics of the job before agreeing to the task. An executor is the individual named to distribute a decedent’s property that passes under his or her will. The executor also arranges for the payment of debts and expenses.

WMUR’s recent article entitled “Settling an estate” explains that if the executor is not willing or able to do the job, there’s usually an alternate executor named in the will. If there’s no alternate, the court will designate an executor for the estate.

Depending on the estate, it can be a consuming and stressful task to address all of the issues. Sometimes, a decedent will leave a letter of instruction which can make the process easier. This letter may address things like the decedent’s important documents, contact info, a list of creditors, login information for important web sites and final burial wishes.

One of the key documents is a will. The executor must get a hold of an original and review it. You can work with an estate planning attorney to determine the type of probating (a process that begins with getting a court to approve the validity of the will) is needed.

The executor should conduct an inventory of the decedent’s assets,some of which may need to be appraised. If the decedent had a safe deposit box, the contents must be secured. Once the probate process is finished, assets then may be sold or distributed according to the will.

Asset protection is critical and may mean changing the locks on property. The executor may be required to pay mortgages, utility bills and maintenance costs on any property. He or she must change the name of the insurance on home and auto policies. Any brokerage accounts will need to be re-titled. The final expenses also need to be paid.

The funeral home or coroner will provide death certificates that will be needed in the probate process, and for filing life insurance claims.

If the decedent was collecting benefits, such as Social Security, the agency will need to know of the decedent’s death to stop benefits. Checks received after death must be returned. The executor will file a final federal and state tax return for the decedent, if necessary. There also may be an estate and gift tax return to be filed.

There’s a lot for an executor to do. It can be made easier with the help an estate planning attorney.

Reference: WMUR (Dec. 23, 2020) “Settling an estate”

 

How to Plan for a ‘Fragile’ Beneficiary

Frequently, estate plans will include an inheritance for a minor beneficiary. If you have minor children, you should spell out exactly what you want as far as who will care for your children and how your children’s financial needs will be met.

Wealth Advisor’s recent article entitled “Handle with care: Tips on planning for the fragile beneficiary” explains that if a minor child inherits property outright, the court will usually appoint a conservator to handle the property until the minor reaches 18. Because of this some parents make use of a trust which lets the assets be available for a minor’s benefit but held under terms you set when establishing the trust. A trustee oversees this. Contact an experienced estate planning attorney to assist you in setting up an estate plan to establish a trust.

A beneficiary with a disability. In some cases, a loved one with a disability may be receiving needs-based government benefits. To make certain that an inheritance doesn’t disrupt those benefits, many parents or guardians ask an experienced estate planning or elder law attorney to create a special needs trust (SNT). This is an irrevocable discretionary trust created by the parent in many cases for the benefit of a child with special needs. When set up correctly, the special needs trust won’t be considered an available resource for the purpose of determining eligibility for needs-based government benefits.

Incentive planning. Another aspect of estate planning is to use your assets to influence your loved one’s values and future behavior. A trust with incentive or disincentive provisions may help guide the choices and actions of your family, even after you have died.

Advanced planning for successful beneficiaries. If you plan to leave assets to a beneficiary who has the potential to incur significant personal liability due to his or her profession, ask your estate planning attorney about an irrevocable discretionary lifetime trust. If an inheritance is left to such a person without any protections, it may be attached by a judgment creditor upon distribution. A successful beneficiary may also need tax planning. If the beneficiary’s inheritance is properly left in a lifetime trust with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney, it may be removed from his or her taxable estate for federal estate tax purposes.

Although estate planning may be thought of as a way to transfer your assets to your family in a tax-efficient manner, it is also a way in which you can motivate, and at times protect, your loved ones.

Reference: Wealth Advisor (Dec. 22, 2020) “Handle with care: Tips on planning for the fragile beneficiary”

 

What to Do First when Spouse Dies

Forbes’ recent article entitled ‘Checklist for Handling the Death of a Spouse” tells us what to do when your spouse passes away:

Get Organized. Create a list of what you need to do. That way, you can tick off the things you have done and see what still needs to be done. Spending the time to get organized is critical.

Do an Inventory. Review your spouse’s will and estate plan, and then collect the documents you will need. Use a tax return to locate various types of financial assets.

Identify the Executor. The executor is the individual tasked with carrying out the terms of deceased’s will.

Get a Death Certificate. Request multiple copies of the death certificate, maybe at least a dozen because every entity will need that document.

Contact Your Professional Advisors. You will need to tell some professionals that your spouse has passed away. This may be your CPA, your estate planning attorney, financial advisors and perhaps bankers. These contacts will probably know nearly everything that is required to be done. You will also need to contact the Social Security Administration and report the death.

Take a Step Back. Take a breath. You should take the time to process your emotions and grieve with the other members of your family. Check on everyone and make sure the loved ones remaining are doing all right.

Avoid Making Any Major Decisions. Do not make any major financial decisions for a year. This includes things such as selling a house or making a lump sum investment. After the death of a spouse, you are emotional and looking for advice. It is easy to be pressured into making a decision that might not be in your best interests. Allow yourself permission to be emotional and not make any decision because you recognize you are grieving.

Make Certain Your Spouse’s Wishes Are Carried Out. The best way to honor your spouse is to make sure their requests and wishes are carried out. You are the only individual who can do that. Your spouse expects you to take care of their last wishes the way they had intended. Contact an experienced estate planning attorney to review the will, if any.

Reference: Forbes (Aug. 28, 2020) ‘Checklist for Handling the Death of a Spouse”

 

Estate of Charles Schulz Still Making Money

Charles Schulz’s estate made $32.5 million in the past year. That placed third on the list of the highest-paid dead celebrities. Michael Jackson is number one and fellow cartoonist Theodor Geisel aka Dr. Seuss is number two.

Some of Schulz’s income is from the new Apple TV+ show “Snoopy in Space,” as well as classics like “A Charlie Brown Christmas.”

Wealth Advisor’s recent article “Decades After His Death The Estate Of Charles Schulz Is Still Making A TON Of Money” reports the Peanuts creator is consistently one of the highest-earning dead celebrities. Schulz himself is thought to have earned more than $1 billion during the comic strip’s unprecedented 50-year run.

Schulz was born in 1922 in Minneapolis. He knew he wanted to be a cartoonist in kindergarten when he started drawing Popeye. By high school, he was submitting his original cartoons to his school paper, as well as local magazines. After his service in Europe during World War II, Schulz created a cartoon called “Li’l Folks” for the St. Paul Pioneer Press. His cartoons were noticed by United Feature Syndicate, a newspaper syndication company. They offered to syndicate Schulz’s cartoons to their national network of newspapers with one condition: they wanted him to change the name of his comic strip to Peanuts. Schulz hated that, but United Feature Syndicate was already running a comic with a very similar name, and this wasn’t an opportunity he could pass up.

The first Peanuts cartoon ran in 1950, when Schulz was 28 years old. That first year, just seven newspapers ran Peanuts. However, by 1953, Peanuts was a hit, and Schulz was earning $30,000 a year (about $292,000 today). At its zenith, Peanuts was syndicated to more than 2,600 newspapers in 71 countries and 21 languages every day. The comic strip characters also made a fortune with merchandise and endorsements. In the 1980s, Schulz was the highest-paid celebrity in the world by a wide margin. He made $30 million in royalties (about $65 million today). From 1990 until his death in 2000, he earned $40 million a year.

Over nearly 50 years, Schulz drew 17,897 published Peanuts strips. The last of his cartoons was published on Feb. 12, 2000, one day after he died. Remarkably, Schulz wrote and drew every single comic himself. When he died, his will said that no new Peanuts comic strips could be drawn by another cartoonist. So far, his wishes have been honored.

Reference: Wealth Advisor (Dec. 8, 2020) “Decades After His Death The Estate Of Charles Schulz Is Still Making A TON Of Money”

What are Options for Powers of Attorney?

Power of attorney (POA) documents are an important component of an estate plan. There are four types. You should review each carefully to see which one will work best for you in your situation. What is required for a power of attorney, depends upon what power you want to authorize, says Carmel’s Hamlet Hub in a recent article titled “4 Types of Power of Attorney.”

Limited Power of Attorney. If you need someone to act on your behalf for a limited purpose, use a limited power of attorney. This will specify the date/time after which the power no longer is in effect.

General Power of Attorney. This is an all-encompassing power of attorney, in which you assign every power and right you possess as an individual to a certain party. It’s typically used where the principal is incapacitated. It is also used with those who don’t have the time, skills, knowledge, or energy to handle all of their financial matters. The power you assign is in effect for your lifetime, or until you are incapacitated (unless it is also “durable”). However, you can elect to rescind it before then.

Durable Power of Attorney. The key distinction with a durable power of attorney is that it stays in effect, even after you’ve become incapacitated. Therefore, you want to sign a durable power of attorney if: (i) you want to give the designated agent authority ONLY if you’re unable to act for yourself; or (ii) you want to give the agent immediate authority that continues after you’re unable to act for yourself. You need to contact an experienced estate planning attorney to discuss these different types of powers.

Note that a limited or general power of attorney ends when you become incapacitated. At that point, a court will appoint a guardian or conservator to handle your matters. You can rescind a durable power of attorney at any time prior to becoming incapacitated.

Springing Power of Attorney. This document serves the same purpose as a durable power of attorney, but it’s effective only upon your becoming incapacitated. When drafting this, your experienced estate planning attorney will help you make clear your definition of “incapacitated.”

Remember that you’ll need to state in your power of attorney document which powers and duties you are assigning to the attorney-in-fact.

Regardless of the type of power of attorney you implement, the attorney-in-fact has the power to do only what your POA indicates. Contact an experienced estate planning attorney to discuss the different types of powers and which would apply to your circumstances.

Reference: Carmel’s Hamlet Hub (Dec. 16, 2020) “4 Types of Power of Attorney”

 

Should I Add that to My Will?

In general, a last will and testament is an easy and straightforward way to state who gets what when you die and designate a guardian for your minor children, if you (and your spouse) die unexpectedly.

MSN’s recent article entitled “Things you should never put in your will” explains that you can be specific about who receives what. However, attaching strings or conditions may not work because there’s no one to legally enforce the terms. If you have specific details about how a person should use their inheritance, whether they are a spendthrift or someone with special needs, a trust may be a better option because you’ll have more control, even from beyond the grave.

Keeping some assets out of your will can actually benefit your future heirs because they’ll get their inheritance faster. When you pass on, your will must be “proven” and validated in a probate court prior to distribution of your property. This process takes some time and effort, if there are issues—including something in your will that doesn’t need to be there. For example, property in a trust and payable-on-death accounts are two types of assets that can be distributed to your beneficiaries without a will.

Don’t put anything in a will that you don’t own outright. If you jointly own assets with someone, they will likely become the new owner. For example, this applies to a property acquired by married couples in community property states.

Property in a revocable living trust. This is a separate entity that you can use to distribute your assets which avoids probate. When you title property into the trust, it is subject to the trust’s rules.  Because a trust operates independently, you must avoid inconsistencies and not include anything in your will that the trust addresses. Contact an experienced estate planning attorney to discuss.

Assets with named beneficiaries. Some financial accounts are payable-on-death or transferable-on-death. They are distributed or paid out directly to the named beneficiaries. That makes putting them in a will unnecessary (and potentially troublesome, if you’re inconsistent). However, you can add information about these assets in your letter of instruction (see below). As far as bank accounts, brokerage or investment accounts, retirement accounts and pension plans and life insurance policies, assign a beneficiary rather than putting these assets in your will.

Jointly owned property. Property you jointly own with someone else will almost always directly pass to the co-owner when you die, so do not put it in your will. A common arrangement is joint tenancy with rights of survivorship.

Other things you may not want to put in a will. Businesses can be given away in a will, but it’s not the best plan. Wills must be probated in court and that can create a rough transition after you die. Instead, work with an experienced estate planning attorney on a succession plan for your business and discuss any estate tax issues you may have as a business owner.

Adding your funeral instructions in your will isn’t optimal. This is because the family may not be able to read the will before making arrangements. Instead, leave a letter of instruction with any personal wishes and desires.

Reference: MSN (Dec. 8, 2020) “Things you should never put in your will”

 

How to Plan for ‘Black Sheep’ Kid in Will

Every family has unique circumstances as far as wealth, financial planning and plans for the future. Therefore, it is critical that you consider your individual beneficiaries’ circumstances, when it comes to estate planning.

Kiplinger’s recent article entitled “Estate Planning for ‘Black Sheep’ Beneficiaries” explains that this may take the shape of child with a substance abuse issue, a lack of financial acumen and responsibility, or a mental illness. You also may want to reward certain behaviors in the future. All these situations can be addressed thoughtfully and effectively in your estate planning documents with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney. Let’s dispel some of the common myths surrounding these issues:

Myth #1: You are required to split your estate evenly among your children. Disinheriting a beneficiary happens a lot. It can occur for a variety of reasons that have nothing to do with disapproval of a potential beneficiary’s lifestyle choices. Regardless of the reason for disinheriting completely or making unequal distributions, it’s best to discuss this in your estate documents or in a separate letter. Give the reasons for your decision to head off any possible claim against the estate or even just hard feelings among family members.

Myth #2: Once you’ve disinherited your black sheep, it’s irreversible. Not so. You should review your estate planning choices regularly because situations change (hopefully for the better), and you can revise your estate plan to provide incentives for your beneficiary to continue making progress.

Myth #3: You have no control of the issue after you pass away. While there’s no direct control after you die, you can, however, make specific instructions in your trust to reward and motivate your black sheep to behave in a certain fashion. You can also treat the share of inheritance for one beneficiary differently than others. Therefore, a financially responsible child may be allowed to access such a share of the estate in one lump sum; but you create a trust for the second child who has issues.

Myth #4: Trusts are huge hassle. Certain trusts permit you to name a person to help your beneficiary manage their inheritance. This can be a family member or friend, as well as a professional trustee who will assume the administrative responsibilities of a trust.

Don’t avoid the subject of estate planning. Work with an experienced estate planning attorney and discuss the options available.

Reference: Kiplinger (Dec. 8, 2020) “Estate Planning for ‘Black Sheep’ Beneficiaries”