What are the Biggest Blunders in Wealth Transfer?

When it comes time to transfer what we’ve work so hard to accumulate, the way in which we transfer our wealth can have a big impact on how much of our wealth is actually received by our heirs and how much is transferred to the federal government.

Forbes’ recent article entitled “Top 7 Tax Mistakes Made in Planning a Wealth Transfer” says that tax mistakes can mean losing a lot of hard earned money, if you’re not careful. Here are some of the biggest mistakes made in wealth transfer planning.

  1. IRD Taxes. Most people are unaware of this tax. It stands for “Income in Respect of the Decedent.” It’s the income tax your heirs will pay on tax-deferred assets, such as traditional IRAs, 401k’s and annuities. In many cases, these taxes will push heirs into a higher marginal tax bracket. You should plan to reduce or eliminate the IRD Tax, if you have a 401k, IRA or annuities. For example, if you gift IRA and 401k assets to charity and non-IRD assets to your heirs, you can save them in IRD Taxes! The use of a Charitable Remainder Trust can provide a tax-efficient way to create a “charitable stretch IRA” for your children or grandchildren.
  2. Charitable Giving Mistakes. Most people do charitable giving with after tax cash from their income. However, this isn’t the most efficient way to give. Gifting highly appreciated securities, real estate, or even business interests can give you a double tax benefit: it can eliminate capital gains taxes and still get the charitable tax deduction.
  3. Dying without a Comprehensive Estate Plan. About three-quarters of Americans die without a will. A will, by itself, subjects your assets (and your heirs) to probate. A well-designed estate plan can help reduce or eliminate both probate and estate taxes. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about creating a comprehensive estate plan for you or review the one you have.
  4. No (or Improper) Beneficiary Designations. This can result in a loss of inheritance for your family. With retirement accounts like IRAs or 401(k)s, properly designating beneficiaries is essential to avoid the loss of further income tax deferral at death. If you don’t have primary and contingent beneficiaries named on all your accounts, these assets will have to go through probate and could cost unnecessary IRD taxes.
  5. Improper Titling of Business Interests. A business is frequently titled only in the name of the business owning spouse. However, when that spouse dies, the business itself must go through the costly process of probate, which can create issues for the operation of the company.
  6. Bad Choices for Ownership & Beneficiary Designations on Life Insurance. Life insurance can be a great financial planning tool and provide liquidity. It can also be a great wealth transfer tool in estate planning or business planning. However, if the ownership and beneficiaries are done incorrectly, the life insurance benefits can be subject to estate taxes. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about an irrevocable life insurance trust (ILIT).
  7. Giving the Wrong Assets to your Heirs. A common mistake that people make in wealth transfer planning, is to leave a percentage of their estate to their children, another to their grandchildren and another to their favorite charities (or Donor Advised Fund) in their will or via a trust. However, this isn’t the smartest way to distribute your assets from a tax perspective. Doing so could subject them to IRD taxes. Instead, use IRA (and other IRD assets such as 401k) for your gifts to charity and, give non-IRD assets (such as cash, real estate, life insurance, or a Roth IRA) to your children and grandchildren.

Reference: Forbes (Dec. 15, 2021) “Top 7 Tax Mistakes Made in Planning a Wealth Transfer”

How Should I Handle an Inheritance?

Hearing about an inheritance can be bittersweet because it’s nice to receive a lump sum of money, but it likely means you have lost a loved one.

Real Simple’s recent article entitled “The First 3 Money Moves to Make if You’re About to Get an Inheritance” says that while you may be excited about the prospect of receiving unexpected money, there are certain financial moves you should make to make sure you’re prepared when you do get your inheritance.

Be patient and cautious. When you hear that you’ll be getting an inheritance, know that you’re probably not going to receive a check that week. This process can be slow. When you do get your money, take some time to consider what you want to do with this gift.

Seek out expert advice. Work with professional advisors, such as an experienced estate planning attorney to navigate the financial and legal implications of your inheritance. One task is to set up an account for your retirement because you don’t want to lose it or blow it.

An attorney can help you with tax implications you must consider. Estate taxes have become less of an issue, as a result of recent changes to the lifetime exemption amount. However, certain parts of an inheritance can trigger significant income taxes. An experienced estate planning attorney can explain how both federal estate taxes and any applicable state inheritance taxes may impact your inheritance.

Update your estate plan. Even if your inheritance isn’t going to make you an Elon Musk, take that time to review and update your own current estate plan.

In addition to impacting the way in which your family might inherit from you, getting an inheritance might make you to consider other alternatives for disposing of your own estate, like charitable contributions.

If the inheritance you’re receiving is significant, the chance that your own children or family will inherit a larger amount could also require additional planning.

Reference: Real Simple (Dec. 27, 2021) “The First 3 Money Moves to Make if You’re About to Get an Inheritance”

Why Do I Need an Estate Planning Attorney?

Pennsylvania News Today’s recent article entitled “Top 7 Reasons You Need An Estate Lawyer says that when you think about hiring a real estate lawyer, it might seem a little unsettling. However, let’s look at these reasons and why you might require them.

Estate Planning. You might want to consider this, but everyone passes away. It’s important that your family is ready for this. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you through this process and make certain everything is prepared. You should have a will. This document says what should happen with your assets when you pass away.

Trusts. A trust helps manage assets before someone dies. If you only have one or two assets you want given to someone, a will is adequate. However, if you own extensive property, ask an experienced estate planning attorney about setting up a trust. This will help your family keep living in your home, even after you’re gone without worrying about it being sold out from under them.

Probate. The probate court oversees the distribution of a person’s estate according to the instructions in their will. Probate can be a lengthy and expensive process, depending on where you live and the complexity of your assets or family situation. An estate planning attorney can help you with strategies to avoid it. A probate attorney can help you, so your family doesn’t have to worry about dealing with that stress or spending a vast amount of money necessary to do this correctly.

Guardianship. Guardianships are used when parents pass away and leave minor children behind. You can designate a guardian for your minor children in your will.

Elder Law Services. Seniors frequently need help managing finances and health care decisions. An experienced estate planning attorney or elder law attorney can help your loved ones through these complicated matters.

Estate Investments. An experienced attorney can also advise you on how to make smart investments for your family and can make certain that the transaction goes smoothly, and that any moves work with your estate planning objectives.

Tax Issues. Taxes may be owed on estates worth more than five million dollars. This can make it hard for heirs who don’t have access to this much money upfront. An estate planning attorney can help you avoid taxes, so your family doesn’t have to deal with this problem.

Estate planning is a process that should be started as soon as possible. You’ll need an estate planning lawyer who is knowledgeable and experienced to help.

Reference: Pennsylvania News Today (Nov. 11, 2021) “Top 7 Reasons You Need An Estate Lawyer”

Do I Need More than a Will?

A will lets you distribute your assets, name a guardian for minor children and name an executor to carry out your wishes when you die.

The Chicago Sun-Times’ recent article entitled “Estate planning: When a will won’t work” says that you should know what a will can’t or shouldn’t do, especially if you’re writing your own without a lawyer, or you could unknowingly make a mistake that ruins your estate plan.

A will can’t avoid probate, and your will becomes a public record. However, a frequently used method to bypass probate is to create a revocable living trust, and transfer ownership of your assets into the trust. You retain control, but after you die, your successor trustee can distribute your property without a court’s involvement.

Jointly-held property also passes directly to the other owner, and accounts with beneficiaries (life insurance and retirement funds) also avoid probate. Another option is to use “transfer on death” or “payable on death” documents to designate beneficiaries for other financial accounts.

You might think that a will is a way to make people to do what you want. For instance, you could leave your son a bequest that he gets only if he finally finishes college. However, putting conditions in a will may not work well. Some conditions aren’t legally enforceable or are simply too burdensome to enforce.

If you want to impose conditions, ask an experienced estate planning attorney to create a trust. You might also use a trust is when you want to leave money to someone with special needs who is getting government benefits. That’s because a bequest could disqualify them from essential benefits, such as Supplemental Security Income and health insurance coverage through Medicaid.

Technically you can disinherit your spouse in your will. However, disinheriting a spouse can be extremely hard to do. That’s because the state has a mechanism that protects a spouse from being completely disinherited. In many states, a spouse has a right to claim one third to one half of the estate, regardless of what a will states.

However, a spouse can agree to be disinherited in a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement or can “disclaim” or refuse an inheritance, so that it goes to other heirs.

Reference: Chicago Sun-Times (Nov. 18, 2021) “Estate planning: When a will won’t work”

Should I Start Estate Planning Now?

The coronavirus has taken a toll on our finances, as well as our physical and mental health. As a result, it’s important to plan appropriately for your health care and financial needs in an estate plan to provide much-needed peace of mind, say Yahoo Finance’s recent article entitled “Estate Planning During a Pandemic – Quit Stalling.” The article lists the important components of a comprehensive estate plan:

Advance Health Care Directive. This is a written plan that states your wishes, in the event you can’t speak for yourself. Your wishes need to be in writing, and the document should be updated as your health changes. Review your advance health care directive with your doctor and the person you select as your health care proxy to be certain it’s completed correctly.

Health Care Power of Attorney. This legal document lets you name someone who can review your medical records and make decisions, such as how and where you should be treated. This would be applicable, if you were incapacitated and unable to make medical decisions for yourself.

Living Will. A living will is a type of advance health care directive that specifically states your end-of-life decisions in the event you are terminally ill or permanently unconscious. This covers specific medical treatments, like CPR, ventilation, pain management, tube feeding and organ and tissue donation.

Financial Power of Attorney. This document lets you name someone to help with your finances, if you become incapacitated and unable to do so. You can state how much control your power of attorney will have, like accessing accounts, selling stock and managing real estate.

Trusts. Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about creating a trust to protect your assets as you pass them down to your heirs. If your children or grandchildren aren’t old enough or mature enough to handle their inheritance, you can set up a trust that provides them with a small amount of money each year, increasing that amount as they get older. You can also direct that the money be specifically used for an adult child’s mortgage or student loans.

Beneficiaries. Many people forget to update their life insurance policies, bank, brokerage accounts and retirement plans. These all have beneficiary forms, which supersede a will. These should be updated, along with your estate plan, every few years and after every major life change. That’s something like a marriage, divorce, death, adoption, or birth.

Make certain that you are reviewing and updating your estate plan when you review your retirement plan each year or so.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Oct. 31, 2021) “Estate Planning During a Pandemic – Quit Stalling”

Is Estate Planning Really That Important?

Over 50% of our adult population (120 million adults) neither have nor realize the significance of having an up-to-date estate plan to protect themselves and their family’s assets.

Mountain Times’ recent article entitled “Do you need an estate plan?” explains that estate and gift planning is a process that can protect you and your family. It is a very important component of your overall financial planning. This is the perfect time to put your estate planning in order. If you don’t have an up-to-date estate plan and you are seriously ill or injured and can’t manage your financial affairs, a judge will have to appoint someone to manage them for you. The person they appoint might not be the one you would want to perform those tasks.

Without an estate plan, when you pass, your affairs will be settled by the probate laws of the state. As a result, the handling of your affairs can be costly and frustrating for your family.

Your assets may also not pass to your desired beneficiaries. In addition, there’s no way for your assets to be donated to your favorite charities or causes, unless some advance arrangements are made.

Sit down with an experienced estate planning attorney to discuss your goals and objectives. Your attorney can then draft the appropriate legal documents, such as wills, trusts, buy-sell agreements for business owners, durable powers of attorney for financial management and an advance healthcare directive or health-care power of attorney. These documents will help your family at a very difficult and emotional time.

Regardless of the extent of your net worth, estate planning is important for everyone.

Complex strategies may be used by wealthy people to reduce death taxes and costs. However, everyone needs a will and/or trust to pass on property to their heirs and provide for minor children.

An estate plan is an essential part of your financial and gift planning.

The time to create or update your estate plan is now with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney.

Reference: Mountain Times (Oct. 6, 2021) “Do you need an estate plan?”

Do I Need a Living Trust?

Yahoo Finance’s recent article entitled “What Is a Living Trust in Real Estate?” says that a living trust is a legal document that makes it easier for you to pass assets to your loved ones after you die. It allows property to be transferred directly to your designated beneficiaries without needing to go through probate. A living trust will be managed by a trustee, while you’re still living (that can be you).  You’ll name a successor trustee who will manage the trust, if you become incapacitated and distribute its assets after you pass away.

While the trust holds these assets, you’re still considered in possession of them while you’re alive (assuming you named yourself the trustee). Therefore, you can move assets in and out of the trust as you see fit. If you have a revocable trust, you can even cancel or change it at any time.

Creating a living trust can simplify the inheritance process for your family when you die. That’s because any property you own is subject to the probate process when you die. Probate can be a very lengthy process.

While waiting, your family may be unable to manage, use, or sell the property you left behind. Until probate is complete, your executor will be responsible for maintaining the property, including paying taxes, making repairs and paying the bills (like insurance).

A living trust is a beneficial financial product for many reasons. First, it bypasses the probate courts. There are some types of assets that will pass on to your beneficiaries directly, and others will need to clear the probate courts before they can be disbursed to your beneficiaries. This probate process can take months or even years and can be both costly and complicated.

Another benefit of a trust is that you keep control of your estate, even after you pass away. A living trust lets you set rules, timelines and stipulations for your estate. This may be something like keeping your children from getting a substantial sum of money in their early 20s. With a living trust, you can state instructions for your trustee as to when your kids receive that inheritance. For example, you may provide that they receive their inheritance in stages, like a third at 30, 35 and 40.

Finally, a trust is private. Unlike a will, your trust can be kept as private as you want. Once you pass away, and your will is filed with the probate court, it becomes public record. However, if you’d rather have your estate and your wishes kept out of the public eye, a trust can help you do so.  Because a trust skips the probate process, it’s also much harder for someone to challenge your directives. An experienced estate planning attorney can help you decide if a trust is great option for your family.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Oct. 7, 2021) “What Is a Living Trust in Real Estate?”

Why Should I Update My Estate Plan?

The majority of Americans don’t have an updated estate plan in place. This can create a major headache for their families, in the event that anything happens to them.

Fox 43’s recent article entitled “Majority of Americans have outdated estate plans” explains that estate planning is making some decisions now for what you want to happen in the future, if you’re unable to make decisions then.

It’s important that every adult has an estate plan in place. Moreover, as you get older and you have a family, an estate plan becomes even more important.

These decisions can impact your family. It involves deciding who will care for your children. If you’re a parent with children under the age of 18, your estate plan can name the guardians of those children.

This is accomplished by having a clause in your will that states which person(s) will have the responsibility of caring for your minor children, in the event that you and your spouse pass away unexpectantly.

In your will, you’ll also name an executor who will carry out your wishes after your death.

You may ask an experienced estate planning attorney about whether you should have a trust to protect some of your assets.

You also should have your attorney draft a power of attorney, healthcare directive, living will and HIPAA waiver.

Many people don’t know where to get started. However, the good thing is ultimately it’s your decisions about what you want to happen, if you are unable to care for your loved ones.

Talk to an experienced estate planning attorney and do this sooner rather than later.

Reference: Fox 43 (Oct. 27, 2021) “Majority of Americans have outdated estate plans”

Is There More to Estate Planning Than Writing My Will?

Having a will is especially important if you have minor children. That’s because you can nominate guardians for your minor children in your will. Guardians are the people you want to raise your children, in the event that neither you or your spouse can do so.

Fed Week’s article entitled “Estate Planning: It’s Not Just about Making a Will” explains that when designating guardians, a person should be practical.

Closet relatives—such as a brother and his wife—may not necessarily be the best choice. They may be busy raising their own family and have plenty to look after, without adding your children to the equation.

You’re acting in the interests of your children, so be certain that you obtain the consent of your chosen guardians before nominating them in your will.

In addition, make sure you have sufficient life insurance in place, so the guardians can comfortably afford to raise your children.

However, your estate planning shouldn’t stop with a will and guardians. There are a number of other components to include:

  • Powers of attorney. A power of attorney allows a person you name to act on your behalf regarding financial matters.
  • Health care proxy. This authorizes another person to make medical decisions for you, if you are unable to do so yourself.
  • Living will. This document states your wishes on life-sustaining efforts.
  • HIPAA Waiver. This document allows healthcare professionals to provide information on a patient’s health to third parties, such as family members.
  • Letter of Last Instruction. This personal document is an organized way for you to give your family important information about your finances and perhaps your reasons for your choices in your will or trust. This letter isn’t a will or a substitute for one.
  • This is a way to avoid assets going through probate. The assets in trust can provide funds for your heirs under the rules you set up.

Ask an experienced estate planning attorney about developing a comprehensive estate plan.

Reference: Fed Week (September 28, 2021) “Estate Planning: It’s Not Just About Making a Will”

How Long Is Probate?

Yahoo Finance’s article entitled “How Long Does Probate Take?” gives us an overview of the main things you need to understand about the probate process, so you can prepare.

During probate, a judge determines the way in which to distribute assets to heirs. The court will also authenticate the will (if there is one) and appoint an executor of estate to supervise the probate process. Probate procedures depend to a large part on the state the decedent lived in and the type of estate he or she had.

After authenticating the decedent’s will and appointing an executor, the executor locates and assesses all the property owned by the deceased. If there are any debts, the executor uses estate assets to pay these. The remaining estate is then distributed to the heirs.

The probate process takes time to make certain that everything is done according to the law. As a result, it can take from a few months up to over a year. There’s a long list of variables that can contribute to the duration. A few of the common factors are discussed below.

Estate Size. An estate’s size contributes significantly to the time in probate. Most states use the total value of the estate to determine its size. This depends on state laws and the type of assets included in the estate. Many states now have a small estate probate process, and some waive it altogether for low-value properties. The state may have a small estate limit of a certain dollar amount. The executor or beneficiaries can complete a Small Estate Claim Form or an Affidavit for Transfer of Personal Property to avoid probate for estates below that value.

Multiple beneficiaries. If an estate has a number of heirs, it may gum up the works. Multiple beneficiaries can slow down the probate proceedings because disputes can drag out an otherwise smooth legal process. Disagreements among family members or other heirs can result in delays or even a total halt.

No Will. If a person dies without a will, it means that there’s no guidance from the decedent. As a result, the court and executor have to work through the estate and distribution from scratch.

Debts. Taxes and debts are major factors in the time needed to close an estate. Creditors must be paid before the beneficiaries can receive anything. When a person dies, his or her creditors must receive formal notice. They have a deadline to make a claim for money the estate owed. The longer the claims period, the longer the delay in the probate process.

Taxes. Taxes on an estate also can take a while to process. The estate must receive a closing letter from the IRS and the state taxing authority to close out the probate process. This can take up to six months. An experienced Estate Planning attorney can help you file a probate.

Reference: Yahoo Finance (Sep. 27, 2021) “How Long Does Probate Take?”